There are federal, provincial and territorial laws to protect children from abuse in the home. Some types of abuse are crimes and are listed in the Criminal Code which is a federal law that applies across Canada. Even if the abuse is not a crime under the Criminal Code , provincial and territorial child protection laws could be used to stop the abuse. Child sexual abuse happens when a person takes advantage of a child for sexual purposes.
Sexual abuse of a child includes:. Any sexual contact between an adult and a child under 16 is a crime. In Canada, the age of consent for sexual activity is 16, but there are some exceptions if the other person is close in age to the child.
- Silent Scars of Domestic Abuse | The National Domestic Violence Hotline.
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In addition, children under 18 cannot legally give their consent to sexual activity that exploits them. Sexual activities that exploit a child include prostitution and pornography. They also include situations where someone in a position of authority or trust, or someone the child depends on, has any kind of sexual activity with the child. A person of authority or trust could be a parent, step-parent, grandparent, older sibling, teacher or coach. If a child is sexually abused at home, child protection services could intervene and remove the child from his or her parents. Children who witness family violence are at risk for both short and long-term harm.
Even if they don't see or hear the violence, they can be affected by hearing or seeing the results of the violence. They can have emotional, behavioural and developmental problems. These problems can last a long time. They are also at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder. Exposing a child to family violence can be grounds for child protection intervention under provincial and territorial child protection laws.
Elder abuse is any action, behaviour or failure to act, by a person in a position of trust-like an adult child, family member, friend or caregiver-that causes or risks causing harm to an older adult. Elder abuse includes:. For more information about elder abuse see our publication Elder Abuse is Wrong. Violence based on so-called "honour" happens when family members use violence to protect the family's honour. The victim, who is usually female, has behaved in ways that the family believes will bring shame or dishonour.
For example, the family might not approve of:. The family members believe that using violence will restore the family's reputation. The types of violence the family uses can include:. These actions are all crimes, and crimes committed in the name of so-called "honour" are often planned in advance with other family or community members.
This violence is not limited to any particular ethnic or religious community. For more information about violence based on "honour" see our publication Abuse is Wrong in Any Language.
Forced marriage happens when one or both people do not consent to the marriage. Forced marriage is not the same as arranged marriage, where people consent to the marriage. Family members sometimes use physical violence, abduction, forced confinement or emotional abuse to force the person into the marriage. Even if parents try to force their child to marry because they think it is good for the child, using threats or violence to do this is a crime.
Children might also be the victims of forced marriages. Sometimes their families take them out of school to force them into marriages. This violence can occur in many ethnic or religious communities. For more information about forced marriages see our publication Abuse is Wrong in Any Language. Female genital mutilation is any procedure that injures or removes all or part of the external female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
Effects on the family
It has no health benefits and it can cause pain and serious long-term health problems. Female genital mutilation of a child is a crime in Canada. Also, any person who helps mutilate a female child's genitals could be charged with a crime. This includes parents, doctors, or nurses.
Even the person who asks someone else to do this to a child commits a crime. It is also against the law to take a child out of Canada to have this procedure done in another country. The Government of Canada is working to increase our knowledge about family violence by doing research, studies and surveys including:. National information that comes from these sources is provided in reports and articles produced by Statistics Canada , which show that family violence remains a common and widespread problem in Canada.
For example,. Many experts suggest the amount of family violence may be much higher than these figures show. Surveys, studies and police reports do not capture all cases of violence and abuse. These issues may be associated with battering of women, but they do not cause it. There are also many secondary benefits of violence to the batterer.
A batterer may choose to be violent because he finds it fun to terrorize his partner, because there is a release of tension in the act of assault, because it demonstrates manhood, or because violence is erotic for him.
Effects on the victim
Violence is a learned behavior and batterers choose to use violence. The victim is not part of the problem. Four widespread cultural conditions allow and encourage men to abuse women. These are:.
Economic Abuse Financial abuse is a way to control the victim through manipulation of economic resources. Arizona Revised Statute Stalking; classification; definitions A. A person commits stalking if the person intentionally or knowingly engages in a course of conduct that is directed toward another person and if that conduct either:. Stalking, under subsection A, paragraph 1 of this section is a class 5 felony.
Stalking under subsection A, paragraph 2 is a class 3 felony. Common Stalking Behaviors Below is a list of common stalking behaviors.
The effects of domestic and family violence
Stalking during a relationship or after it has ended is high-risk behavior. It is typically defined as the willful, malicious and repeated following or harassing of another person, accompanied by a credible threat of violence. It has been increasingly recognized as a serious crime in the United States.
Safety precautions must be taken if it is occurring to you or someone you love! And remember, in most states, these behaviors are also against the law. Also, not all the suggestions presented will be appropriate or feasible for all situations — each case is to be analyzed individually, as not any two relationships are the same. Get Help Now! When the general public thinks about domestic violence, they usually think in terms of physical assault that results in visible injuries to the victim.
This is only one type of abuse. There are several categories of abusive behavior, each of which has its own devastating consequences.
Domestic violence - Wikipedia
Lethality involved with physical abuse may place the victim at higher risk, but the long term destruction of personhood that accompanies the other forms of abuse is significant and cannot be minimized. Controlling behavior is a way for the abuser to maintain dominance over the victim. This may include but is not limited to: Checking the mileage on the odometer following their use of the car. Monitoring phone calls, using caller ID or other number monitoring devises, not allowing the victim to make or receive phone calls.
Not allowing their freedom of choice in terms of clothing styles or hairstyle. This may include forcing the victim to dress in a specific way such as more seductively or more conservatively than they are comfortable. Calling or coming home unexpectedly to check up on them. This may initially start as what appears to be a loving gesture, but becomes a sign of jealousy or possessiveness. Invading their privacy by not allowing them time and space of their own.
According to the AMEND Workbook for Ending Violent Behavior, physical abuse is any physically aggressive behavior, withholding of physical needs, indirect physically harmful behavior, or threat of physical abuse. This may include but is not limited to: Hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, shaking, pushing, pulling, punching, choking, beating, scratching, pinching, pulling hair, stabbing, shooting, drowning, burning, hitting with an object, threatening with a weapon, or threatening to physically assault.
Withholding of physical needs including interruption of sleep or meals, denying money, food, transportation, or help if sick or injured, locking victim into or out of the house, refusing to give or rationing necessities. Abusing, injuring, or threatening to injure others like children, pets, or special property. Forcible physical restraint against their will, being trapped in a room or having the exit blocked, being held down.
The abuser hitting or kicking walls, doors, or other inanimate objects during an argument, throwing things in anger,destruction of property. Holding the victim hostage. Sexual Abuse. Sexual abuse is using sex in an exploitative fashion or forcing sex on another person. This may include making the victim have sex with others, have unwanted sexual experiences, or be involuntarily involved in prostitution. Exploiting a victim who is unable to make an informed decision about involvement in sexual activity because of being asleep, intoxicated, drugged, disabled, too young, too old, or dependent upon or afraid of the perpetrator.
Having affairs with other people and using that information to taunt the victim.